Footnotes and Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
  1. Ciara McCarthy, "Concealed Carry Is Now Legal in All 50 States, and the NRA Doesn't Want Us to Know What That Really Means,", July 11, 2013

  2. Jeff Dege, "Progress in Right-to-Carry," Gun Nuttery website, May 18, 2008

  3. Richard Getchall, "Carrying Concealed Weapons in Self-Defense: Florida Adopts Uniform Regulations for the Issuance of Concealed Weapons Permits," Florida State University Law Review, 1987

  4. National Rifle Association Institute for Legislative, "Right-to-Carry 2009,", May 7, 2009

  5. "Going for the Guns,", Mar. 18, 2010

  6. John Lott, Jr., More Guns, Less Crime, 1998

  7. National Research Council, Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review, 2004

  8. John Lott, Jr., More Guns, Less Crime: Understanding Crime and Gun-control Laws, 2000

  9. Gary Kleck, Targeting Guns: Firearms and Their Control, 1997

  10. Students for Concealed Carry "Common Arguments," (accessed Mar. 25, 2010)

  11. Charles Branas, et al., "Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault," American Journal of Public Health, Nov. 2009

  12. David McDowell, et al., "Easing Concealed Firearms Laws: Effects on Homicide in Three States,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Fall 1995

  13. David Hemenway, PhD, Deborah Azrael, PhD, and Mathew Miller, MD, "Gun Use in the United States: Results from Two National Surveys," Injury Prevention, Dec. 2000

  14. Violence Policy Center, "Concealed Carry Killers," (accessed Mar. 19, 2014

  15. US Federal Bureau of Investigation, "Crime in the United States, 2007,", Sep. 2008

  16. Matthew Miller, PhD, Deborah Azrael, PhD, and David Hemenway, PhD, "Firearm Availability and Unintentional Firearm Deaths," Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2001

  17. CBS News and New York Times, "Majority Support for Many Gun-Related Proposals,", Jan. 11-15, 2013

  18. John Lott, Jr., "Analysis: Fact-Checkers Fall Short in Criticizing NRA's Anti-Obama Ads,", Sep. 24, 2008

  19. Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence, "Weaker Gun Laws, Lack of Leadership Earn President Obama a Failing Grade,", Jan. 19, 2010

  20. Jeffrey Snyder, "Fighting Back: Crime, Self-Defense, and the Right to Carry a Handgun,", Oct. 22, 1997

  21. Ian Ayres, PhD, and John Donohue, PhD, "Shooting Down the More Guns, Less Crime Hypothesis," Stanford Law Review, Apr. 2003

  22. David Welna, "Senate Rejects Concealed Weapons Measure,", July 22, 2009

  23. Lindsey Reiser, "Arizona May Allow Faculty to Carry Guns on Campus,", Feb. 5, 2010

  24. Wayne Laugesen, "Sheriff Says He'll Undermine Gun Ban," The Gazette, Feb. 23, 2010

  25. Bruce Rushton, "Gun-rights Activists Descend on Capitol," State Journal-Register, Mar. 11, 2010

  26. "Concealed Carry Permits Hit Ohio High," Mansfield News Journal, Mar. 1, 2010

  27. Mike Wereschagin and David Brown, "Candidates' Gun Control Positions May Figure in PA. Vote," Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, Apr. 2, 2008

  28. Patrik Jonsson, "UT Shooting Comes Just As Austin Campus Debates Concealed Weapons Law," Christian Science Monitor, Sep. 28, 2010

  29. R.G. Ratcliffe and Gary Scharrer, "Lockdown in Austin," Houston Chronicle, Sep. 28, 2010

  30. William E. Sturdevant, PE, "An Analysis of the Arrest Rate of Texas Concealed Handgun License Holders As Compared to the Arrest Rate of The Entire Texas Population,", Sep. 1, 2000

  31. Antonin Scalia, Majority Opinion, District of Columbia v. Heller,, June 26, 2008

  32. Gary Kleck and Marc Gertz, "Armed Resistance to Crime: The Prevalence and Nature of Self-Defense with a Gun," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Autumn 1995

  33. Ian Ayres and John J. Donohue III, "More Guns, Less Crime Fails Again: The Latest Evidence from 1977 – 2006," Journal of the American Institute for Economic Research, May 2009

  34. Violence Policy Center, "License to Kill IV: More Guns, More Crime,", June 2002

  35. Matthew Miller, MD, and David Hemenway, PhD, "Guns and Suicide in the United States," New England Journal of Medicine, Sep. 4, 2008

  36. Clayton E. Cramer, Concealed Weapon Laws of the Early Republic: Dueling, Southern Violence, and Moral Reform, 1999

  37. Carol Skalnik Leff and Mark H. Leff, "The Politics of Ineffectiveness: Federal Firearms Legislation, 1919-38," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 1981

  38. David M. Goldman, JD, "The National Firearms Act,", May 4, 2008

  39. Richard S. Grossman and Stephen A. Lee, "May Issue vs. Shall Issue: Explaining the Pattern of Concealed Carry Handgun Laws, 1960-2001," Contemporary Economic Policy, Apr. 2008

  40. Florenz Plassmann and T. Nicolaus Tideman, "Does the Right to Carry Concealed Handguns Deter Countable Crimes? Only a Count Analysis Can Say," Journal of Law and Economics, Oct. 2001

  41. Carlisle E. Moody and Thomas B. Marvell, "The Debate on Shall-Issue Laws,", Sep. 2008

  42. Samuel Alito, Majority Opinion, McDonald v. Chicago, (1.1 MB), June 28, 2010

  43. Charlie Mathews, "Wisconsin Concealed-carry Law May Prompt New Ordinances,", July 8, 2011

  44. Ray Long, "With Deadline Approaching, Illinois Lawmakers Struggle to See Eye to Eye on Concealed Carry,", Apr. 10, 2013

  45. USA Carry, "Concealed Carry Permit Information by State," (accessed Mar. 14, 2014)

  46. National Conference of State Legislatures, "Guns on Campus: Overview,", Mar. 2014

  47. USA Carry, "Washington D.C. Concealed Carry Permit Information," (accessed Mar. 19, 2014)

  48. Ben Garrett, "Concealed Carry: A Look at America's Handgun Permit Status," (accessed Mar. 19, 2014)

  49. Radical Gun Nuttery, "Progress in Right-to-Carry,", July 3, 2013

  50. US Supreme Court, Robertson v. Baldwin,, 1897

  51. Dinesh Ramde, "Senate Votes to Legalize Concealed Carry,", June 15, 2011

  52. Mark Gius, "An Examination of the Effects of Concealed Weapons Laws and Assault Weapons Bans on State–Level Murder Rates," Applied Economics Letters, Nov. 26, 2013

  53. National Archives, "Constitution of the United States," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)

  54. US 7th Circuit Court of Appeals, Moore v. Madigan,, Dec. 11, 2012

  55. US 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, Peruta v. San Diego,, Feb. 13, 2014

  56. Tom W. Smith, "2001 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings,", Dec. 2001

  57. Ed Marshall, "Former Chicagoan: Concealed Guns Make Me Feel Safer,", Mar. 10, 2011

  58. Teresa Stepzinski, "More Women Carrying Concealed Weapons in Florida,", Mar. 23, 2014

  59. Nick Leghorn, "NY Times Proves Concealed Carry License Holders More Law-Abiding Than the Population. Unintentionally,", Dec. 28, 2011

  60. Patrik Jonsson, "Gun Debate: Is Price of an Armed America a More Dangerous America?,", Feb. 2, 2014

  61. David B. Kopel, "Colorado Consensus on Gun Laws,", July 26, 2012

  62. University of Chicago Press, "An Interview with John R. Lott, Jr.," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)

  63. Linda Greenhouse, "Justices Rule Police Do Not Have a Constitutional Duty to Protect Someone,", June 28, 2005

  64. Ashley Woods, "Police Chief James Craig Says What Detroit Needs Is More Guns,", Jan. 23, 2014

  65. Ipsos Public Affairs, "Gun Rights/Regulations Poll,", Apr. 2012

  66. Abhay Aneja, John J. Donohue III, and Alexandria Zhang, "The Impact of Right to Carry Laws and the NRC Report: The Latest Lessons for the Empirical Evaluation of Law and Policy,", Aug. 2012

  67. Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, "Guns in Public Places: The Increasing Threat of Hidden Guns in America,", July 1, 2011

  68. Ethan Bronner, "Other States, and Other Times, Would Have Posed Obstacles for Gunman,", July 24, 2012

  69. Violence Policy Center, "States with Higher Gun Ownership and Weak Gun Laws Lead Nation in Gun Death,", Feb. 7, 2013

  70. US Supreme Court, District of Columbia v. Heller,, June 26, 2008

  71. National Archives, "Bill of Rights," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)

  72. The Gainesville Sun, "Felons Exploit Loopholes in Fla. Concealed Weapons Law,", Jan. 29, 2007

  73. James Wright and Peter Rossi, "Armed Criminals in America: A Survey of Incarcerated Felons, 1983,", 1985

  74. Fred Clark, "Concealed Carry Training Requirement Suspended,", Nov. 8, 2011

  75. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), "States' Laws and Requirements for Concealed Carry Permits Vary across the Nation,", July 2012

  76. Patrick Marley, "Committee Suspends Training Requirement for Concealed Weapons,", Nov. 7, 2011

  77. Southern Illinois University, "Poll: Gun Related Issues Evenly Divide States Voters,", Mar. 10, 2014

  78. Amy Thompson and James Price, et al., "Student Perceptions and Practices Regarding Carrying Concealed Handguns on University Campuses," Journal of American College Health, July 2013

  79. Law Center to Reduce Gun Violence, "Polling on Carrying Concealed Weapons,", Sep. 9, 2012

  80., "PoliceOne's 2013 Gun Policy & Law Enforcement Survey Results: Executive Summary,", Apr. 8, 2013

  81. Carl Bialik, "Detroit Police Response Times No Guide to Effectiveness,", Aug. 2, 2013

  82. Richard W. Stevens, "Just Dial 911? The Myth of Police Protection,", Apr. 1, 2000

  83. Southern California Public Radio (89.3 KPCC), "LAPD Chief Beck on Officer-Involved Shooting, California's Concealed Carry Gun Laws and Marijuana Enforcement,", Feb. 19, 2014

  84. Patrik Jonsson, "Florida Popcorn Shooting: Are Concealed Guns About Self-Defense or Power?," The Christian Science Monitor, Jan. 15, 2014

  85. Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, "Supreme Court Leaves in Place New Jersey Law Limiting Guns in Public Places,", May 5, 2014

  86. David Kopel, "Licensed Handgun Carry Now Legal in District of Columbia: Palmer v. DC," Washington Post, July 28, 2014

  87. Frederick J. Scullin Jr., Palmer v. District of Columbia, July 26, 2014

  88. California Right to Carry, "Palmer v. District of Columbia," (accessed Sep. 9, 2015)


Saul Cornell, "The Second Amendment and Early American Gun Regulation: A Closer Look at the Evidence," Law and History Review, Spring 2007

"Federal Concealed Carry," Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence website (accessed Feb. 22, 2010)

"Guns Decrease Murder Rates," Washington Times website, Jan. 21, 2010

Robert Hahn, et al., "Firearms Laws and the Reduction of Violence: A Systematic Review," American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Feb. 2005

David Kopel, "The Untold Triumph of Concealed-Carry Permits," Policy Review, July 1996

Jens Ludwig and Philip Cook, Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence, 2003

Jeffrey Jones, "In U.S., Record-Low Support for Stricter Gun Laws," Gallup website, Oct. 9, 2009

"SAF Gun Rights Frequently Asked Questions," Second Amendment Foundation website (accessed Mar. 3, 2010)

"State by State," Students for Concealed Carry on Campus website (accessed Mar. 20, 2010)

Daniel W. Webster, et al., "Flawed Gun Policy Research Could Endanger Public Safety," American Journal of Public Health, June 1997